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Cockroaches

Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, sometimes called Blattaria, of which about 30 species out of 4,600 total are associated with human habitats.  About four species are well known as pests.

Among the best known pest species are the American cockroach, Periplaneta Americana, which is about 30 mm (1.2 in) long; the German cockroach, Blattella Germanica, about 15 mm (0.59 in) long; the Asian cockroach, Blattella Asahinai, also about 15 mm (0.59 in) in length; and the Oriental cockroach, Blatta Orientalis, about 25 mm (0.98 in). Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger, and contrary to popular opinion, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species.

Spiders

Spiders (of the order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom. They are the largest order of arachnids and rank seventh in total species diversity among all other orders of organisms. Spiders are found worldwide on every continent except for Antarctica, and have become established in nearly every habitat with the exceptions of air and sea colonization. As of September 2015 at least 45,709 spider species and 114 families have been recorded by taxonomists; however there has been dissension within the scientific community as to how all these families should be classified, as evidenced by the over 20 different classifications that have been proposed since 1900.

Scorpions

Scorpions are predatory arthropod animals of the order Scorpiones within the class Arachnida. They have eight legs and are easily recognized by the pair of grasping pedipalps and the narrow, segmented tail often carried in a characteristic forward curve over the back, ending with a venomous stinger. Scorpions range in size from 9 mm (Typhlochactas Mitchelli) to 20 cm (Hadogenes Troglodytes).

The evolutionary history of scorpions goes back to the Silurian Era 430 million years ago. They have adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions and can now be found on all continents except Antarctica. Scorpions number about 1750 described species, with 13 extant families recognized to date. Only about 25 of these species are known to have venom capable of killing a human being.  The taxonomy has undergone changes and is likely to change further, as genetic studies are bringing forth new information.

Scorpion stings are painful but are usually harmless. For stings from species found in the United States, no treatment is normally needed for healthy adults although medical care should be sought for children and for the elderly. Stings from species found elsewhere may require medical attention.

Bees

Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax. Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently considered as a clade Anthophila. There are nearly 20,000 known species of bees in seven to nine recognized families, though many are undescribed and the actual number is probably higher. They are found on every continent except Antarctica, in every habitat on the planet that contains insect-pollinated flowering plants.

Some species including honey bees, bumblebees, and stingless bees live socially in colonies. Bees are adapted for feeding on nectar and pollen, the former primarily as an energy source and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients. Most pollen is used as food for larvae. Bee pollination is important both ecologically and commercially; the decline in wild bees has increased the value of pollination by commercially managed hives of honey bees.

Pigeons

Pigeons and doves constitute the bird family Columbidae that includes about 310 species.

Pigeons are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short, slender bills with fleshy ceres. They feed on seeds, fruits and plants. This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones.

In general, the terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used somewhat interchangeably. Pigeon is a french word that derives from the Latin pipio, for a "peeping" chick, while dove is a germanic word that refers to the birds’ diving flight.  In ornithological practice, "dove" tends to be used for smaller species and "pigeon" for larger ones, but this is in no way consistently applied, and historically, the common names for these birds involve a great deal of variation between the terms. The species most commonly referred to as "pigeon" is the feral rock pigeon, common in many cities.

Bedbugs

Bedbugs are small, oval, brownish insects that live on the blood of animals and humans.  Adult bedbugs have flat bodies about the size of an apple seed.  After feeding, however, their bodies swell and are a reddish color.

Bedbugs do not fly, but they can move quickly over floors, walls and ceilings. Female bedbugs may lay hundreds of eggs, each of which is about the size of a speck of dust, over a lifetime.

Immature bedbugs, called nymphs, shed their skins five times before reaching maturity and require a meal of blood before each shedding. Under favorable conditions the bugs can develop fully in as little as a month and produce three or more generations per year.

Rodents

Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of unremittingly growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About forty percent of all mammal species are rodents; they are found in vast numbers on all continents except Antarctica. They are the most diversified mammalian order and live in a variety of terrestrial habitats, including human-made environments. There are species that are arboreal, fossorial (burrowing), and semiaquatic. Well-known rodents include mice, rats, squirrels, prairie dogs, porcupines, beavers, guinea pigs, hamsters, and capybaras. Other animals such as rabbits, hares and pikas were once included with them, but are now considered to be in a separate order, Lagomorpha.

Most rodents are small animals with robust bodies, short limbs and long tails. They use their sharp incisors to gnaw food, excavate burrows and defend themselves. Most eat seeds or other plant material, but some have more varied diets. They tend to be social animals and many species live in societies with complex ways of communicating with each other. Mating among rodents can vary from monogamy, to polygyny, to promiscuity. Many have litters of underdeveloped, altricial young, while others have precocial young that are relatively well developed at birth.